SIOP: Making Content Comprehensible for ELLs
by Judie Haynes
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) was developed to make content material comprehensible to English Language Learners. This model is the result of the work of Jana Echevarria, MaryEllen Vogt and Deborah J. Short.
The SIOP Model includes teacher preparation, instructional indicators such as comprehensible input and the building of background knowledge. It comprises strategies for classroom organization and delivery of instruction.
1. Teachers write clearly defined content objectives on the board for students. These objectives are reviewed at the beginning of a lesson and students should state at the end of the lesson whether the objectives have been met.
2. Teachers should write clearly defined language objectives on the board for students at the beginning of a lesson. Students state at the end of the lesson whether the objectives have been met
3. Concepts taught should be appropriate for the age and educational background of students, Teachers must consider the students' L1 literacy, second language proficiency, and the reading level of the materials.
4. Supplementary materials are used to promote comprehension. These include charts, graphs, pictures, illustrations, realia, math manipulatives, multimedia, and demonstrations by teacher and other students
5.Content must be adapted to ELLís needs through use of graphic organizers, outlines, labeling of pictures, study guides, adapted text, and highlighted text.
6. Meaningful activities integrate lesson concepts with language practice opportunities in listening. speaking, reading, and writing.
Indicators of Instruction:
1. Concepts should be directly linked to studentsí background experience. This experience can be personal, cultural or academic.
2. Links should be explicitly made between past learning and new concepts.
3. Key vocabulary is emphasized. New vocabulary is presented in context. The number of vocabulary items is limited.
1. Use speech that is appropriate for students' language proficiency.
2. Make the explanation of the task clear using step-by-step manner with visuals.
3. Use of a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear. Teachers need to focus attention selectively on the most important information. Introduce new learning in context. Help students learn strategies such as predicting, summarizing.
1. Provide ample opportunities for students to use learning strategies. Learning strategies should be taught through explicit instruction. You want students to develop independence in self-monitoring.
2. Consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson. Introduce a new concept using a lot of scaffolding and decrease support as time goes on. Restate a student's response or use think-alouds
3. Use of a variety of question types, including those that promote higher level thinking skills.
InteractionProvide the following for ELLs:
1. frequent opportunities for interactions about lesson concepts which encourage higher level thinking skills.
2. grouping which supports language and content objectives. Cooperative groups, buddies, pairs, large and small groups
3. ample wait time for responses
4. opportunities for clarification in native language, if possible.
Lessons should include:>
1. hands-on materials or manipulatives for student practice.
2. activities for students to apply content and language knowledge in the classroom.
3. activities that integrate all language skills :listening, speaking, reading and writing.
1. Content objectives supported by lesson delivery.
2. Language objectives supported by lesson delivery.
3. Students engaged 90% to 100% of the period.
4. Pacing of the lesson appropriate to studentsí ability level.
© 1998-2004 Judie Haynes, www.everythingESL.net